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If the goal is to use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) for incoming emails, which Post Office Protocol (POP3) incoming mail server port is used to configure the email client settings?

[The default port number using SSL/TLS security to protect POP3 email communications between the client and server is 995 (POP3S).]

Which protocol is used to automatically provide Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to network computers?

[Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allocates IP addresses to new devices joining the network. Windows clients default to using Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) addresses if the DHCP Server fails to allocate an IP address. This results in the IP address being in the range 169.254.x.y.]

The network needs to support a pre-Windows 2000 legacy system. What protocol will need to be enabled?

[NetBIOS was reengineered to work over the TCP and UDP protocols and is referred to as NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT). NetBT is a networking protocol that allows pre-Windows 2000 legacy computers to be used on a modern TCP/IP network.]

A new device is connected to the network. The device automatically receives an Internet Protocol (IP) address. What protocol, transport(s), and port number(s) was responsible for supplying this device its address?

The device received its IP address from DHCP over UDP on port numbers 67 and 68.
[Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allocates an IP address to a new machine joining the network over UDP on port numbers 67 and 68.]

What makes up the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) used for collecting information from, and configuring, network devices, such as servers, printers, hubs, switches, and routers on an Internet Protocol (IP) network?

Management System and agents
[SNMP consists of a management system to provide a location for network activity and agents. The agents maintain a database of network device activity and can initiate traps identifying notable network events.]

What is a characteristic of connection-oriented communication?

It provides assurance of packet delivery during data transmission.
[TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. It tracks the data sent to ensure no data loss during data transmission.]

Which protocol and port number allows a user to view and control the desktop of a remote Windows computer?

RDP over TCP port 3389
[Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a Microsoft protocol that allows a user to view and control the desktop of a remote computer over TCP port 3389.]

The main directory standard for interoperability of network resources directories is X.500. What protocol was standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to query and update an X.500 directory over which default protocol(s) and port(s)?

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) over TCP or UDP port 389
[Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed X.500 directories over an Internet Protocol (IP) network using either TCP or UDP for its transport on port 389.]

What mail server uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port 25 by default?

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
[SMTP is an outgoing mail server which sends email messages between servers using TCP port 25 by default. The delivery of the message usually requires several “hops” which are recorded in the message header.]

What service uses port 21?

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
[The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) uses well-known port 21. As the name suggests, FTP protocol is used for transferring files.]

Telnet on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port 23, a command-line emulation protocol and program, is still sometimes used for what?

Troubleshooting and configuration
[Telnet is sometimes still used for troubleshooting services such as SMTP or HTTP. Another application of Telnet is for configuration of routers or switches. Since security risks are too high, Telnet is unlikely to be used on a modern network.]

The network is using a mixture of local and cloud-based resources. What would you use to obtain “visibility” of the whole network from a single management interface?

Cloud-based network controller
[Deploying a network using a mixture of local and cloud-based resources, potentially using different-cloud providers, can be difficult to manage. However, with a cloud-based controller these devices can be managed and monitored using a single interface.]

Setting up a network requires the use of various devices requiring that you know the difference between each. What are the differences between a hub, a switch, and a router?

A hub merely passes traffic between devices, a switch directs traffic from one device to another, and a router controls traffic between networks.
[Hubs pass traffic from one device to other devices connected to it. Switches direct traffic from one device to another on a network. And, routers control traffic between network]

You are installing a Small Office Home Office (SOHO) network. What appliance would you use that requires no configuration, provides basic functions, and ties the network together?

Unmanaged switch
[An unmanaged switch connects the devices together on the Small Office Home Office (SOHO) network without requiring any sort of configuration. You just power it on, connect some hosts to it, and it works without any more intervention.]

What are two benefits of using a Power over Ethernet (PoE) switch versus a non-PoE switch?

It is more efficient than using an electric outlet and allows network software to manage power to devices.
[Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches are more efficient than using an electrical outlet for each network connected device. It allows network management software to control the devices and apply power schemes, such as making unused devices go into sleep states and power capping.]

If you had both wired and wireless user devices on a SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) network and you needed to connect these devices, what networking device would you need?

Access Point
[Access points are wireless network devices that act as portals for devices to connect to a local area network extending the wireless coverage and increasing the number of connected users. An access point can take the place of a switch or a range extender, or can connect to a wired router, switch, or hub, to create a wireless local area network (WLAN).]

The steps for setting up a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem are the same as a cable modem except for one. How does connecting a cable modem differ from DSL?

The connection to the provider network will be through a coax cable.
[Cable modems are connected the same as DSL modems except that they are connected to the provider network using a coax cable. Make sure the coax connector is secure (but do not overtighten it). DSL modems use a telephone cable to connect to the provider.]

From the following, which one refers to a software or hardware that monitors network traffic and depending on the configuration settings applied to each data packet either blocks it or allows it to pass through?

[Firewalls are software or hardware that monitor network traffic and depending on its configuration settings applied to each data packet either blocks or allows the traffic to pass through.]

Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a means of supplying electrical power from a switch port over data cabling, category 5 (Cat 5) or better, to a connected powered device. What is a Power over Ethernet (PoE) power injector used for?

Upgrading non-PoE network connections to PoE
[Upgrading each network connection to Power over Ethernet (PoE) is as simple as patching it through the power injector, and as with PoE switches, power injection is controlled and automatic.]

The use of patch cords, permanent links, and what other devices is referred to as a structured cabling system?

Patch panels
[The use of patch cords, permanent links, and patch panels is referred to as a structured cabling system. It is important to label the ports and cables when installing patch panels.]

Neither hubs nor bridges are widely used on networks anymore. These appliances have been replaced by Ethernet switches. How are switches like hubs?

Switches can connect nodes together in a single network, repeating and regenerating signals over multiple ports.
[Like hubs, switches can connect nodes together in a single network, repeating and regenerating signals over multiple ports. Switches are the network devices that tie the whole local network together.]

If you want to run some sort of server application from your network making it accessible to the Internet, what do you need to setup?

Port forwarding
[A router is configured to make a device connected to the network accessible to other devices from outside the local network. Port forwarding uses Internet Protocol an (IP) address plus a port number to route network requests to specific devices.]

It may be possible to replace, or supplement use of a dedicated hub with a more generic smart speaker/digital assistant-type hub. Which of the following is an example of a smart speaker type hub?

Amazon Echo
[The Amazon Echo comes with Amazon’s voice control digital assistant, Alexa. Alexa lets you speak your wishes to an Echo smart speaker and see them fulfilled such as dimming your lights or playing music tracks.]

You have an older desktop PC that you connect to the network using Ethernet, but you would like to add WiFi to it for those occasions when you might need it. You do not want to have to replace the existing motherboard and want the best throughput. What’s the best way to do this?

You can install a PCI-E WiFi card.
[Older model PCs do not usually come with built-in WiFi. A Wi-Fi adapter can be installed as a PCIe expansion card if the function is not available on the motherboard. ]

Which Internet of Things (IoT) endpoint device is used to set switches to a particular dimmer level over a smartphone app?

IoT light switches
[Internet of Things (IoT) light switches or bulbs turn lights on or off or set to a particular dimmer level or color (in the case of smart bulbs).]

Internet of Things (IoT) door locks can offer a good deal of convenience when leaving and entering your home. However, there are several things you should consider before installing an IoT door lock. Which of these is NOT a consideration?

You will need to replace your deadbolt.
[If you want to keep your existing deadbolt, you can buy a smart lock “conversion kit” that essentially turns your traditional deadbolt into a smart lock.]

Smart cameras, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, are built with embedded technology having various functions. What is the main function of IoT security cameras?

To record images to cloud storage
[At the end of the day, or at predefined intervals, or when device memory is nearly full, the camera can transmit video clips of all “suspicious” events to the cloud for long-term storage and review.]

Which standard supports speeds as high as 11 Megabits per second (Mbps) and uses the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) transmission method in the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band for up to 30 meters indoors?

[The 802.11b standard supports speeds as high a 11 Megabits per second (Mbps). However, 5.5 Mbps is another supported data rate. It uses the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band and the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) transmission method. It has a maximum distance of 32 meters indoors and 140 meters outdoors.]

Which of the following wireless communication standards requires line of sight to operate?

Infrared (IR)
[Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is a wireless technology that requires a clear path between communication devices. A good example of this is a TV Remote.]

The 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band is subdivided into up to 14 channels with only 3 that are non-overlapping. There are 23 non-overlapping channels in the 5 GHz band. Which of these channels are permitted for use in the Americas?

Channels 1-11
[Wireless networks operate in either 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) or 5 GHz frequency band which are divided up into a number of smaller bands, called channels. In the United States, regulations permit the use of channels 1-11 only. Channel 1 uses the lowest frequency band and each subsequent channel uses a slightly higher frequency]

Which of the following wireless communication standards is a mesh network with a limit of four “hops” between the controller device and endpoint?

[Z-Wave is run by Silicon Labs, which has stricter controls to make sure every Z-Wave device works with every Z-Wave controller. It is a mesh network where signals can hop from controlling device to endpoint a maximum of four times.]

When talking about "wireless networking" for desktops, laptops, smartphones, and tablets the term is generally understood to mean the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE's) 802.11 standards for Wireless LANs (WLAN), also called WiFi. There are five main versions of the standard. What are they and at what frequency(ies) do they operate?

802.11a – 5GHz,
802.11b – 2.4GHz,
802.11g – 2.4GHz,
802.11n – 2.4/5GHz,
802.11ac – 5GHz

Which of the following wireless communication standards provide only one-way communication?

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
[RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) only provides one-way wireless communication and is better suited for applications such as EZ Pass or tracking items. It is a means of tagging and tracking objects using specially-encoded tags.]

If you wanted to install a wireless mesh network to monitor and remotely control your home using the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band, what wireless networking protocol would you use?

[ZigBee, which uses the widely populated 2.4-GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical Radio (ISM) band, can be used to remotely monitor and control your home. It is like Z-Wave but provides an open source solution that supports more overall devices.]

Which of the following servers logs event messages sent from networked devices?

Syslog server
[Syslog is a way for network devices to send event messages to a logging server, usually known as a Syslog server. The Syslog protocol is supported by a wide range of devices and can be used to log different types of events.]

Which type of server checks your security credentials before allowing you to pass through to network services?

Authentication server
[An authentication server is set up to check the validity of your user name, password, and any other tokens prior to allowing you of the network resources. ]

Why have so many growing businesses looking for a single solution adopted Unified Threat Management (UTM)?

Ease, efficiency, and security
[Unified Threat Management (UTM) is an all in one security platform that uses a wizard for installation. It allows owners to concentrate on growing their business and not worrying about security.]

Which of these is an embedded system in a corporate environment?

Alarm system
[An embedded system is designed for a particular function, as an alarm system. These are purpose-built devices and it is not common to have direct access to their operating systems.]

A web server is one that provides client access using the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or its secure version (HTTPS). What host name is a common alias to indicate that the resource is a web server?

[The www host name is a common alias to indicate that the resource is a web server. Nowadays web services are used to offer fully-fledged web applications, using a variety of programming and scripting languages and environments.]

What is the primary purpose of a Domain Name System (DNS) server?

Translating names into numeric IP addresses
[The Domain Name System (DNS) is the Internet's equivalent of a phone book. It maintains a directory of domain names and translates them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This is necessary because, although domain names are easy for people to remember, computers or machines access websites based on IP addresses.]

What is the function of an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)?

It is to prevent an attack by restarting a router if traffic spikes overall or for a given protocol.
[An Intrusion Protection System (IPS) is an inline security device that monitors suspicious network and/or system traffic and reacts in real time to block it. IPS is a proactive security measure.]

Which of the following is an Internet appliance that discovers, manages, and controls devices that request access to the corporate network?

Endpoint management server
[When a device attempts to log onto the network, the endpoint management server program validates user credentials and scans the device to make sure that it complies with defined corporate security policies before allowing access to the network.]

What type of device most commonly uses a static Internet Protocol (IP) address?

[Servers should always be given a static Internet Protocol (IP) address to ensure they can be quickly resolved and any applications using the IP address do not need to be reconfigured.]

You have been assigned to configure a new enterprise wireless router for your employer's network. Which of the following settings should be changed first?

Default password
[Networking equipment typically ships with a default password or no password at all. Changing the password should be step one, before any other configurations.]

While working for an IT Consulting firm, you have been tasked with setting up several SOHO (Small Office Home Office) wireless networks. Which of the following will ensure the security of confidential data?

Enabling wireless encryption
[WiFi Protected Access (WPA) and WiFi Protected Access II (WPA2) are two securities developed to secure wireless computer networks. Encrypting data before transmitting wirelessly is the best method to ensure data security.]

It is often useful for hosts such as servers, routers, and printers to use the same Internet Protocol (IP) address. To ensure these hosts keep the same IP address, what configuration setting needs to be made on the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server?

Configure DHCP reservations.
[ reservation maps a media access control (MAC) address to an Internet Protocol (IP) address, so that anytime a machine with a reserved MAC address requests a lease from the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, it will always obtain the same IP address.]

When you want to connect a group of isolated computers in an organization, which of the following is the best choice?

Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
[A virtual LAN (VLAN) is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as though they were connected together as normal on one switch, regardless of their physical location. A VLAN is implemented to segment a network, reduce collisions, organize the network, boost performance, and increase security. ]

IP (Internet Protocol) provides packet addressing and routing at the network layer. It does this through IP addressing which provides two pieces of information encoded within the same value, these are:

Network number and host number
[Internet Protocol (IP) addressing is the use of a numerical address to identify a piece of hardware connected to a network. These numerical addresses include a network common to all hosts on the same IP network and a host number uniquely identifying a host on a IP network.]

How are Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses different from IPv6 addresses?

IPv4 are 32-bit addresses displayed as four numbers from 0 to 255.
[The original and still current standard for IP addressing is IPv4 (IP version 4). IPv4 addresses are 32-bit addresses, meaning a combination of 32 binary 1s and 0s. An IP address is expressed in four octets of eight binary numbers each, with the binary number translated into decimals.]

What is a fully digital telephone service, providing data, voice, and video channels over existing phone lines which requires that a phone number be dialed to access the Internet?

[ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a telecommunications technology that enables the delivery of digital data over standard phone lines. It is a dial-up service that is faster than 56K modem but slower than Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).]

A university relays data to staff and students across its nationwide network, consisting of smaller networks linked through a Virtual Private Network (VPN) and the Internet. Which term would best apply to this network?

[A Wide-Area-Network (WAN) is a series of smaller networks that are linked together to form a single, large network. It allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location. A university that spans multiple campuses, or has online programs requiring a nationwide network, is best served by a WAN.]

Which of these is an internet connection type that provides far bigger areas of coverage but tends to experience quite severe latency problems?

[Satellites use frequency bands in the Super High Frequency range (3-30 gigahertz (GHz)). The signal must travel over thousands of miles more than terrestrial connections that could result in up to 1000 milliseconds (ms) delay.]

Which of the following describes an Internet connection type referred to as Line of Sight?

A modem using a wireless connection to a wireless tower
[Line of Sight is an Internet service with a modem that uses a wireless connection from a wireless tower. The signal varies based on interference from outside sources.]

Which one of these refers to a wireless connection to connect devices with a few meters?

[A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network that enables communication between computer devices near a person. PANs can be wired, such as USB (Universal Serial Bus) or FireWire, or they can be wireless, such as infrared, ZigBee, Bluetooth and ultrawideband (UWB).]

A network made up of computers and peripherals in a distinct geographic area sharing wired or wireless communications is referred to as:

[A Local Area Network (LAN) is a self-contained network spanning a small area, such as a building, floor, or room. It is centered around connecting multiple users via wires or wirelessly.]

What broadband Internet connection combines a fiber optic core network with coax links to premise equipment?

[Cable or "broadband cable" delivers Internet service via the local cable company that brings in TV programming. The cable modem is interfaced to the local network or computer through an Ethernet adapter and with the cable network by a short segment of coax.]

What solution was developed to update the last mile of the telephone network wiring to provide high bandwidth to small business premise equipment?

[Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) is a fiber optic cable delivery medium that provides last mile telecommunications’ Internet access directly to a business from an Internet service provider.]

You can use a cell or smartphone’s data plan to allow a laptop or PC to access the Internet. What is this called?

[Tethering is the sharing of a mobile device’s Internet connection with a connected tablet, laptop, or PC. The mobile device can be connected via Universal Serial Bus (USB) or Bluetooth.]

A technician needs to attach an RJ-45 connector to a Cat 5e Ethernet cable, what tool would the technician use?

[Both a punch-down tool and crimper are used with Ethernet cables, however a crimper is used to attach an RJ-45 connector.]

How are tone generators and tone probes different from cable testers?

They can only help you differentiate between different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables.
[It is common for tone generators and probes to be confused with cable testers. Tone generators and probes only allow you to differentiate between different unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and do not confirm that a signal is actually present. ]

You receive a trouble ticket from a user that the network seems to be running slow. You have verified the device side and found no problems and the Ethernet cable is properly connected. What tool would you use next to test the connection?

Cable tester
[A cable tester will help you identify the cable condition, any crosstalk, loss of attenuation, noise, resistance, and any other characteristics that may be adversely affecting the cable connection.]

The Engineering department has been relocated to new offices. You are responsible for moving RJ-45 wall jacks to new locations in these offices. Which tool can you use to verify these RJ-45 port connections after each has been moved?

Loopback plug
[In networking, RJ-45 loopback plugs are great tools for quickly checking if data is being properly transmitted. Loopback plugs are inexpensive tools used to create a loop in wiring.]

You have been tasked with making some cable runs to accommodate new offices. After running the cable, you now need to attach the cable to the back of the patch panel. What tool will you need to complete this task?

Punch-down tool
[A punch-down tool is a hand tool used to connect telecommunications and network wires to a patch panel. The "punch down" part of the name comes from punching a wire into place using an impact action.]

The cable TV is not working in the Director’s office. It does seem to be working in other offices. You have verified that the coax cables are all connected. Which tool will you now need to see if there are any issues with the cable?

[The basic multimeter device is among the easiest cable testing devices used to check the shorts in a coaxial cable. It combines many electrical meters as a single unit which can measure current, resistance and voltage.]